Social Workers and Social Entrepreneurs

Can They Co-exist?

A Paper for "Social Work in the Marketplace" 

Australian Association of Social Workers (WA)

State Conference, 21 August, 2001

Peter Botsman - Whitlam Institute


Over the past twenty years the market place has been everything for governments, policy makers, and economists in the East and the West. Before that time I don’t think we could envision a conference called social work in  the market place. But today it seems like an almost natural , or at least, necessary title. Why? Let me give a long winded answer to this question over  the next hour, but I will summarise the answer by saying immediately that  social workers have been the workers, even developers, of our social sphere,  they seem like a fish out of water in the economy or marketplace. But   something now is compelling us to consider this idea of social workers in  the marketplace seriously. After we reject the more violent arguments of  those who have uncritically advocated privatisation of everything from roads  to schools, I think there is still something important now about this idea  of social work in the marketplace. Today I want to argue that the failure of  the marketplace to live up to the expectations of those who uncritically  advocated market solutions, deregulation and global free trade means that  there is no choice and that social workers have to move beyond their  traditional practices into the marketplace and this involves a re-invention  and reskilling not as community development workers but as community   capacity and economic development supporters. As this suggests, I think the  title of this conference ‘social work in the market place’ is apposite although for perhaps the opposite reasons that might first come to mind. 


Jacques Donzelot’s book The Policing of Families and the distinguished historian Michel Foucault’s successive books on medicine, prisons, and governmentality plot the development of social work as being almost synonomous with the rise of what they called “the social”. In other words, with the rise of the social sphere as a space of civil, domestic and familial relations and most importantly a space of power relations between populations, states, governments and officials.. When work became primarily industrial work, when villages turned into cities, when the horizon became  less dominated by haystacks and more by chimney stacks, social work also  emerged. Social work was designed to civilise and manage populations which  were for the first time congregating together in factory towns and cities as  the grist for the mill of the industrial society. There are many things of course that started to occur around the time of the transition from an agricultural age to an industrial age.. Income became dislocated from the rotation of crops, storage, the preservation of food,  the intensity of a labour process that involved the natural seasons and in  which there were indirect benefits of subsistence. For most of this period  the market place was more or less restricted as an engine of profitable commercial and industrial activity. It had its own logic, structures and most people participated in the market through their work which had its own hours, structures and relationships. In the industrial age the market and  the social became more or less separate spheres.

For two hundred years social space has been evolving and within it social work as a means of helping families, individuals, institutions and children to survive in a economy and a society dominated by industrial work. Governments extracted taxes derived from industrial production and commerce and invested them into the regulatory, cultural and institutional development of the social sphere. Schools, hospitals, departments of families and community services, prisons, mass universities, health departments and social work all developed at a more or less methodical pace. For the most part these institutions developed systematic ways of working with large populations. Training and professionalisation created systems andstrategies that could be copied, emulated and were effective in supporting people within the social space.

Social workers were,  as their name suggests, workers for the development of the social. In a paper on the history of social work in Western Australia Frances Crawford and Sabina Leitmann describe the inter-relationship of 15 pioneering social workers with the imperatives of reconstruction and nation building after the second world war. The role of social workers was to promote the social sphere and to go about including marginalised groups in to the social space. In WA, as in Australia , the lessons of say the German welfare state or modernist France came much later, social work in many parts of Australia has only consolidated itself as a profession in local government, state government, communities, public institutions in the post war period. This was not because of a backwardness in ideology but primarily because the shape and demography of a state like WA meant that the conditions of industrialisation that existed in many 19th century cities in Europe and America really only emerged in the 20th century. Before that, as A.B. Facey reminds us, there were I think a series of relatively streamlined public institutions which meant that professions like nursing, medicine, engineering were the priorities. It was simply assumed that the population had relatively homogenous needs that could be delivered, like the telephone, through a well organised, centralised, bureaucracy that made forays into the regions and centres of the State or which supervised from afar a standardised series of practices in a remote or regional area.

And of course Australia ’s greatest innovation was its industrial regulations, its industrial awards were meant to provide each family with the means to live a civilised life, and its union movement would safeguard these standards. Australia ’s welfare state was, above all, a ‘wage earners welfare state’.

Until relatively late, the work of dealing with the marginalised groups within Western Australia was done through a formal State legislative policy and through third sector, church and religious groups who saw it as their mission to retrieve the poor and the disposed and the indigenous members of our community for god, and for society. The shadow of Daisy Bates and her camel looms large over the regional landscape of South Australia , Western Australia , the Northern Territory and Queensland right up until the second world war.

The late “invention” of social work as an important profession is probably synonomous with post war national building and later community development in Western Australia . If you consider a social work textbook like, for example, Susan Kenny’s Developing Communities for the Future then you can see how the imperatives of nation building and community building and the old role of the third sector collide in a new professional development of social work. In the first case studies of the book Susan notes three classic instances of community development work: the transformation of a vicarage into a youth refuge, the creation of a Women’s Health Resource Centre, the role of arts in a rural and remote town and the creation of a safe route to school in a busy suburban area. I think what happens in this later period, of which we are all a part, is that social workers become, not just passive arms of the state in civilising society, they become inventors of the social. They develop, explain, theorise, research, professionalise, empower and, in many ways, create communities. The classic social work figure of our time is the community development worker. “What makes a good community development worker?”, asks Susan Kenny. She is someone who “will prepare a submission, talk to a group of residents, write a regular column in the newspaper, respond to referrals for emergency accommodation, advise on the establishment of a food cooperative, address an NESB community on the job opportunities at the local council, take phone calls from agencies wanting up to date information about domestic violence, cooperatives and action research.”

In other words this community development worker, that is now synonomous with modern social work, is now a super pastoral care worker who invents, researchs, regulates, employs, advocates, publicises, problem solves, crisis manages, politicizes and finances the social space. She is at the core and nerve-centre of the social space. And as such she is customarily opposed and anti-thetical to the market place. The market is not either in her mode of thinking, in her calculations, in her work or, if it is, it is because it is directly hostile to what she is trying to do.


A shock. In 1979 Margaret Thatcher and later Ronald Reagan brought the dynamism of the market place to the social space. The process began with the take-over in Britain of the nationalised industries (coal, gas, car making, electricity, rail, bus, water) that had remained in tact since the War. In the US it was the previously protected privately regulated monopolies of telecommunications and aviation that were radically deregulated under Reagan. These were the most remote institutions from the centre of the social sphere and in many cases they were overdue for a management revolution.  The spheres of management that had evolved in these government industries were bureaucratic, programmatic, one dimensional and usually focused on one or two legislative goals to which all else was subservient. Most of the time they delivered their product fairly efficiently, but it was often the case that the product was standardised, not-customised and inflexible.

Gradually, as the problems of changing public institutions were overcome and the managerial benefits of private processes became more accepted, and improvements were acknowledged, the revolution shifted from the periphery of the social space to its centre. The revolution to take the processes of the market to the public sector came to areas like health, education and community services. The idea of for profit motives transforming the programmatic and systems oriented spheres of the social space took hold.

The irony is that in Australia where we had no national industries per se but only primarily government owned companies like Qantas, the Australian National Line, Telstra, the Commonwealth Bank I would argue that privatisation cut deeper into the social space than either in England or the US. Perhaps the most radical exponent of privatisation and bringing the forces of the market to the social space was Jeff Kennett. Hospitals in Victoria were sold off and privatised and we now have one of the most privatised hospital systems in the world. Roads and infrastructure was contracted out to private companies instead of being delivered by public works departments and we found out something through this process. Private companies were invariably better at delivering services on time and extracting efficiencies from resources. But they were also likely to be more expensive, less oriented towards communities, riskier to build or maintain and the reaction against Kennett from communities that had been reliant on government monopolies and investments that were not determined by the market place hit like a thunder bolt.

Perhaps the most significant example of privatisation failure in both the United States and Australia was of the institution that is perhaps the oldest institution of the social space, the prison. The first modern prisons were the archetypal social bureaucratic institutions and I think it is now accepted that the market place simply cannot deliver a well regulated, safe, ethically maintained prison that runs on budget and without security breaches.

At a State level, with its predominantly social focus on education, health and infrastructure, I think you can argue that any government which attempted to privatise was sooner or later thrown out in a more or less violent fashion. The pattern has been Greiner, Borbidge, Kennett, Court and now, the CLP in the Northern Territory , have been ejected for bringing market forces into the social space at a vulnerable time. Olsen will probably be next. Although in both Howard and Olsen you have a very instructive experience, with the dead bodies of their colleagues stacked up outside their door, they seem to be learning fast.


So having said all this perhaps I should end my speech here with the following conclusion. After a brief foray, the social eventually triumphed over the market place, labor governments were elected over liberal and conservative governments, the community development worker became queen of the known universe and Australians lived happily ever investing more and more into community development worker and empowering the social work profession!

But we know that conclusion would be a false one.

I think we all know, deep in our hearts that the community development worker as builder of cohesion with the social space is a mythic image. What remains unsaid, also, is that the project of nation building and community building in which all Australians are equal participants and share in the wealth creation process, is also a rather mythic image. A golden period of economic growth did exist for about twenty years in the period from 1949-1972. There was, in that period, a narrowing gap between rich and poor, a lessening of inequality due to full employment and a more prosperous economy and society. We have had bursts of prosperity in the mid1980s and the late1990s but for every move forward, there has been a slump backwards. Achieving stable and sustainable economic growth is all important because if growth falls below 3.5 per cent then the economy is not growing as fast as the workforce and unemployment overall will increase. In 1996 the Keating government’s White Paper argued that 4.5 to 5.0 per cent average growth was needed to reduce unemployment from its 1993 level of 10 per cent to 5 per cent by 2000. But average growth levels above 4.5 per cent over a period of seven years have not been achieved since the golden post war period.  So the point is that to achieve even temporary falls in unemployment requires a major national effort and this does nothing to combat the problems of compounding unemployment in disadvantaged regions and areas.

At the same time the social space in Australia has become a place of unprecedented public investment. During the period of the Howard government the social wage has increased from 61% of total Federal, State and Local Government spending to 63% of the total. In 1997/98 that represented $A123 billion out of a total combined government budget of $A194 billion in current price terms. The majority of the social wage is spent on social security, ($45 billion) or 23% of total government spending, health ($A32 billion) or 16% of total government spending and education ($25 billion) or 13 per cent of total government spending. Combined together or taken individually these areas dwarf every other area of spending, for example, the combined budget of defence and public order is $A17 billion or around 9% of total government funding.

It is a mark of the combined efforts of the social professions, teachers, health workers, social workers that they and their programs and beneficiaries have by far the greatest public spending of any other sector of our society. But it is also a mark of our times that inequality is widening, the idea of community development is really a bit of a joke in so many of our communities and regions around the countries and it might be better to talk about community survival than community development.

So the irony is that the market is still important, perhaps more important than any of those of us working in the social sphere could have ever envisioned.

The first thing is that we need the market to do its share of the work. Without a strong and growing market economy it is very clear to me that our efforts in community development will be about helping people who have become more and more marginalised from the real economy and the existing tools of the community development worker and the social worker will become more and more inadequate. So I think you will agree with me that we need to argue for a macro-economic strategy that fosters growth and jobs.

But let us say that both John Howard, Peter Costello and Kim Beazley and Simon Crean accept this argument completely tomorrow, and put into place the most extraordinary neo-Keynesian growth strategy, and that within seven years, we have reduced unemployment  to below 5 per cent. Even if this were so, and, by the way, I don’t think any of our leaders are persuaded of this strategy, it would take us decades to restore the communities and family damage and to repair the inequality that has resulted from the above 5 per cent unemployment that has been with us since 1975. It would take us decades.

So the second thing I think we have to start to do is to work out ways in which we can help the market start to work again. And I think this is starting to happen. The lessons again, in many instances, come from the market not necessarily the social work training or community development work that we traditionally envisioned. All over the world, in communities that have been hard hit by globalisation, privatisation, deregulation and have lost main stay industries like steel, ship building, agriculture we are finding communities that are slowly but steadily re-inventing themselves.

Often, as the case I heard from Bunbury the other day, it will come from a person or group who thinks beyond their normal social work training, role and occupation. A Centrelink worker who grows sick of unfairly breaching people, sees private development intruding on previously cheap accommodation for homeless people, spends lunchtimes with his co-workers, establishing a housing cooperative that creates affordable accommodation, and takes over one of the houses that was up for development.

The point I want to make is that these strategies and activities like that of the Bunbury social entrepreneurs, that we have previously thought of as being marginal to say the work of a social worker or an economic development agency are now centre stage. The things that we did in our lunch times, need to be what we need to be funded to be doing full time. In Susan Kenny’s text book on community development the sort of cooperatives she envisioned were peripheral to the market economy, for example, food cooperatives which may supplement the choices from the local supermarket with affordable, better quality produce, the Womens Refuge, the Housing Coop. The challenge we have now is to go beyond these models to create cooperatives and enterprises that are not a supplement to a market economy but that create alternative economic opportunities, an intermediate  labour market and pathways from the marginal and displaced economies and regions back into the real economy. We have to be about using the large sums of money we have invested in social wage institutions into the job of creating a social enterprise state. I am also uncomfortable with this phrase community development worker because it can never be the social worker that brings about community development it has to be the collective power of the community that makes community development possible.

If you imagine our million or more unemployed people we need to create 100,000 new enterprises each employing ten new people with a living wage. To contemplate such a challenge we need to again embrace the processes and lessons of the market, of business enterprise, of competent management, of entrepreneurial  behaviour. The other thing we need to do is look with new eyes on social wage funds and institutions. We need to be looking at every public institution with new entrepreneurial eyes. What can this university do to create new enterprises in our community? How can we use this school ground and building to create an opportunity or add value? What can we do with this hospital budget to ensure more work in the local community that will in turn create a virtuous cyle of more healthy living? What can we do with the maintenance budget of a public housing department? What role can TAFE play in directly supporting a community business with skill development?

The surprising thing about this is that I think it is beginning to happen. Moreover if you follow the George Negus discussion with Australia round the country, the revolution is not being started by politicians, in fact they still don’t get it, it is not being started by social workers who often are carted off to hospital with heart attacks after persisting with the text book role of community development officer or who have to be treated with manic depression after working in Centre Link for too long, nor is it being started by academics who still want to defend the public system and want more and more funding even though they don’t in the hearts know it is possible; it is not being started by professionals. The ground swell is coming from the communities themselves. Furthermore what they want is precisely to get their hands on the share of the $123 billion that is currently being spent on the social wage in those communities. They want to leverage the social wage, infrastructure and public enterprise spending so that it can make a difference in their communities. They want to spend it differently and use it more efficiently, appropriately and directly to solve their problems.


In the final part of this talk I want to mention a number of examples of the beginnings of the new social enterprise state that we need to build together and which I hope that in your day to day work you will support and become linked up with.

Linking Up

The first is the extraordinary Social Entrepreneurs Network (SEN). The term social entrepreneur seems to capture the need for a new synergy between our economy and our society. The very fact that this network has been formed in six months with an interest group of over 600 spanning the nation, a core membership of 100s, that we have just appointed a Chief Executive Officer and that there are now links in every state, dinners being held in cities and regions that meet to share lessons and ideas and a website of case studies and tools is being developed is testament to the fact that something new is going on. The idea of SEN is that it will teach you how to set up a community bank, a jobs cooperative, a regional economic recovery based on art, or festivals or it will create a mentoring system that will help you develop your idea. Vern Hughes at Hotham City Mission in Melbourne is currently the central point of contact. It is envisioned also that the SEN network will link up with the UK ’s Community Action Network which is better developed and networks over 1000 innovative community projects and people. So I hope you will keep track and even consider being a part of the Social Entrepreneurs Network.

Town Entrepreneurship

The second is a homegrown example of great hope and interest. The idea of town enterpreneurship, small town renewal and learning cities and regions often rely on the creation of enterprise, value and sustainability from in Charles Ledbeater’s phrase ‘thin air’. On Saturday I had the good fortune to attend Balingup’s Medieval Afayre. Some of you may have seen it noted on the local television news or have heard about it on the grapevine. In a town of 525 people 400 people are involved in the creation of this festival which brings over 5000 people to the community. The concept was developed by a passionate local Ros Benson who wanted to do something that would bring out the creative spirit of the community and would provide an economic base for the town. The Medieval Afayre has transformed August, previously Balingup’s slowest economic month of the year, into Balingup’s best month of the year in more ways than one. It really is inspirational when you realise that from just one good idea a transformative process can emerge that incorporates the social capital of the community, the business and employment needs of the local economy and a touch of creativity and entrepreneurship that benefits all and enables a small town to survive and thrive into the future. In direct dollar terms on   Saturday I estimate that about $15,000 in direct income went to the local community chest and about $200,000 of trading took place.

All over the country local economies and towns are fighting back from the effects of deregulation, privatisation and competition policy through the development of farmers markets, new industries and creative approaches to development, but it is important to note that Balingup’s initiative did not emerge from a vacuum. Jane Manning coordinator of the Small Town Self Help Program of the Department of Education and Training has been as much a civil entrepreneur supporting creative development of small towns in the South West as Ros Benson and her neighbours have been creative and entrepreneurial in developing their festival. Similarly the work of social workers such as Heather Walford and Kieran Merrit working out of Edith Cowan University on initiatives such as a South West Community Bank are important contributors to these new initiatives and are also exemplary of the kind of new role I am talking about for social workers. I note that Jim Ife, who is to follow me at this conference, argues this way, and Jim’s book on Community Development, is a theoretical and pedagogical support for this type of work and strategy. There is also now an established set of practices and ideas that have emerged, most notably through the public intellectual efforts of Western Australia ’s Peter Kenyon. I would highly recommend to you the Small Town Renewal overview and case studies as well as the Manual for Small Town Renewal developed by Peter Kenyon and his colleagues for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.

Kenyon and his colleagues document 14 case studies of town entrepreneurship. In each case significant initiatives and enterprises grow up as catalysts for development and the crucial ingredient is the participation, imagination, energy and enthusiasm of the community. The fact that all of these initiatives emerge in communities that were marked for death after dairy deregulation, the closure of a timber mill, or meat packing plant or one of our traditional Australian agricultural industries, is all the more significant. In Balingup it is the Small Farm Field Day and the Medieval Afayre, in Beechworth in Victoria it was Tom O’Toole’s Beechworth Bakery, in Boonah, Qld it included the hosting of the Tom Quilty Endurance Ride, best practice rural enterprises, cooperatives and agricultural tourism, in Burra, South Australia it was turning a unique architectural heritage into a creative tourist strategy, in Coolah NSW it was street scaping, its Telecentre and a new sense of civic pride; in Deloraine Tasmania it was a series of creative initiatives including the inspirational Giant Steps Educational Centre which was established by a committee of parents and community supporters who refused to accept the lack of services for children with autism spectrum disorder, in Donald, Victoria it was the development of a strong housing development policy and business development policy; in  Culargambone, NSW it was the development of a Rural Transaction Centre which offers a range of banking, postal, internet and shopping services, in Harrow, Victoria it was the town’s nocturnal sound and light show which brought an extra annual $200,000 into what locals described as a “two keg a week town”, in Hyden, WA it was creating a synergy around the towns tourist attaction Wave Rock; in Kulin WA it was the formation of a community bank, the creation of the Tin Horse Highway and the Kulin Bush Race Event, in Mitchell Queensland it was the development of an extended Caravan Park and Great Artesian Spa, in Oatlands, Tasmania it was the creation of the Central Tasmanian Community College as a skill development centre for young people which goes beyond the traditional boundaries of training and in the words of its principal has “a role to play in both the future economic viability of the student and the society”., in Tunby Bay South Australia it was town beautification, the creation of a telecentre and the development of a marina.

The next steps to be made with town entrepreneurship is to try to incorporate the lessons and ideas of individual initiatives into an ongoing and growing strategy. The idea of learning towns and regions and creative cities are the way in which we need to move forward with these individual initiatives. How can we use, for example, a Festival as a learning experience which leads to new festivals, education, enterprises, values and knowledge? This is of course about turning one-off events into industries and long term benefits. It is all about creating more sophisticated networks of enterprises that can sustain greater numbers of people and lead to wider community and social benefits. All these challenges are now, in my opinion, the central businessof the social work of the future.

When we cast our gaze at the social wage that fund of $195 billion we need to be thinking creatively about how to use that money more creatively. So let me now mention a number of social enterprises that point to the future.


Andrew Mawson and the Bromley by Bow community’s healthy living centre in the East End of London  is an example of how communities can take back control of social services that are controlled through the programmatic and non-community focused departments of government. The death of a woman on a housing estate led residents to take back, the equivalent of our social wage resources, back into their own control and to create their own centre in which doctors and health workers pay the community rent for conducting their business and which in turn enable an enormous variety of truly healthy and community energizing activities to take place. The whole way in which this model evolved is the antithesis of  the way in which say a hospital or community is established in many of our urban and rural settings. In the Bromley by Bow case it was the community that designed the health centre and it was health professionals and a variety of other creative agencies that were consulted in its formation. The community, and the very best of the private and public sector, were combined in unique and creative ways, that create opportunities for learning, earning, living and creativity.

Social Security, Public Housing and Training

Alan Sinclair and the Wise Group of Scotland have created Glasgow ’s 40th biggest company, Europe ’s largest environmental training company and what they call an intermediate labour market by turning passive social welfare dollars into a dynamic value creating business. The Wise Group began with a 10,000 pound council grant and with the use of the maintenance budget for Glasgow’s public housing estates they have basically created training companies that give unemployed people work to fix up and insulate dank and cold houses, fix up the backblocks of public housing by turning them into gardens, they have created training companies to secure the safety of houses in areas vulnerable to crime. Alan’s training is not in social work, but as a master of business management.


Vic ki Meadows, Mandy Sheppard, Carmel Flavell founded the Families in Partnership cooperative for children with an intellectual disabilities because they wanted an agency that would work with professionals not just for one or two years, but across the entire life of their children. FIP is now three years into a 65 year long planning cycle which is about turning their community into the most inclusive possible of children with and intellectual disability and which will support them for the rest of their lives.

Public Housing

Brian Murnane in Claymore turned Sydney ’s supposed worst street into a place where there is now a queue to come and live. Again he gave back control of the development of resources to the community and he invested his energy into the creation of small and modest infrastructure such as community gardens which created a sense of spirit and ownership. Brian’s quest continues and he is now trying to take over the Claymore shopping centre to make it a hub of new community enterprise and initiatives. It is so necessary in the outer suburbs of our cities to transform the passive shopping centres that are synonomous with organisations like Coles-Myer and Woolworths and to turn them into enterprise hubs and places of hope. At the moment in many of our cities the dream cul de sacs and suburbs of the 1950s are like geographical padded cells, dispensing just enough welfare dollars and infrastructure to keep people passified but not enough to allow people to get back into the real economy.

Indigenous Communities

Noel Pearson’s Cape York Partnership is about creating relationships between indigenous communities and private and public agencies to invigorate indigenous communities that have been economically un-developed by the impact of the Western social welfare state and socially devastated by the impact of an epidemic of grog, drugs and violence. Pearson has articulated a range of strategies including: an enterprise development fund and start up group, a concerted campaign against grog and drugs in indigenous communities, I want to conclude this talk with some of Noels words. In a recent talk in Sydney he said: “..the challenge to transform the role of government in the lives of aboriginal people is no small challenge. There are huge ideological barriers and barriers of vested interest to reforming the role of government. We need to transform the real valuable resources and role of government into something that helps our people. We need a retreat of the initiative of government but not the resources and we need a transformation of resources … if we really want progressive change, and if we want social progress then you’re going to have to face up to the limitations of our previous thinking …We’re going to have to challenge those ideologies that we’ve grown comfortably with and that appeased us and made us feel good …. I urge those who favour social progress to understand that the situation for indigenous people on Cape York has not improved. Huge opportunities have been wasted. Lots of young people … have fallen by the wayside and so I hope that the ideas in the “ Enabling State ” provide some signposts for what government needs to do, what the community needs to do in order to move  towards genuine social progress.

I think Noel’s challenge on Cape York is a profound one, but in the communities of mainstream suburban, and other parts of rural and regional Australia it is no less a challenge. I hope that these words today will at least cause you to begin a critical questioning of the grant tenets of social work and that we will see more social workers intervening, creating, altering and supporting communities in the marketplace.

Background Reading

Jane Manning, “ Small Town Development Two Case Studies”, South West Development Authority, Bunbury, W.A., Jan 1994
Mike Coopin (ed.) “Community Work: Solution or Illusion? Papers from the Second Australasian Conference on Rural Social Welfare Practice”, Kookynie Press, 1992.
Peter Kenyon, Alan Black, Jim Cavaye, John Duff, Michael O’Meara, Peter Palmer, Small Town Renewal Overview and Case Studies, RIRDC Pub No 01/043, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, June 2001 and Peter Kenyon, Alan Black, Jim Cavaye, John Duff, Michael O’Meara, Peter Palmer A Manual for Small Town Renewal, RIRDC Pub No 01/043, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, June 2001.